Generally the first year of life is considered as the most happy period and puberty the most unhappy period. Acceptance, Affection and Achievements are the important factors that results in happiness of a child
Principles of development
Principles for developmental directions
1.] Cephalo Caudal / anterior –posterior Law; ie development spreads from head to foot. Improvements in structure and function come first in head region, then in the trunk and last in the leg region.
2.] Proximo distal law; i.e. development proceeds from central axis of the body towards the extremities. E.g. The children use their arms first before using the hands and after this only they use their fingers.
Both these laws overlap and correlate
It is here we have to relate to the HOMOEOPATHIC principles of healing.
Development proceeds from General to Specific
In all phases of development whether motor or mental the child’s responses are of general nature before becoming specific. E.g. child begins moving the arms in general first, later makes specific movement of catching an object still later picking a very small object using fingers. Baby babbles generally before making specific sounds.
In Homoeopathic treatment, we go from generals to specifics.
There are individual differences in development
The differences in development are due to hereditary influences and also due to environmental conditions. This is true for both physical and psychological development.
Here we can see the importance of individualization.
Development is continuous
It is continuous process from the moment of conception to death but occurs at different pace. Sometimes rapidly while at times slowly.
The rate of development is continuous in most of the individuals
Those who have faster growth in the first years of life continue to grow in the same manner in the later years. Children, whose growth rate is slow, have the same growth even in later years.
All parts of the body do not have the same rate of development, different areas develop at different rates.
There is a relationship between the development of physical and mental traits.
Eg Development of Language is related to development of speech organs
Principle of Functional Asymmetry
In spite of the bilateral construction of human beings, they do not develop symmetric use of his system. An individual develops monolateral aptitudes and preferences in handedness etc. This asymmetrical attribute ensures greater efficiency.
Developmental pattern has predictable characteristics;
There is similarity in the developmental pattern for all children. All children follow a similar pattern with one stage leading to the next.
Development is a product of maturation and Learning;
Maturation is the unfolding of the individual’s inherent traits. It provides the raw material for learning. It influences the general pattern and sequence of behavior. Learning is development that comes from exercise, experience and effort by the individual. Development happens from the interaction of maturation and learning and its limit is set by maturation. Development cannot go beyond a certain limit even when learning is encouraged because of limitations in the hereditary endowment of the child.
Deprivation of learning opportunities limits development
When the environment limits opportunities for learning children will be unable to reach their hereditary potentials.
Stimulation is essential for full development;
For full development of hereditary potentials or innate capacities children must be stimulated or encouraged to develop especially at the time they grow.
Effectiveness of learning depends on proper timing ;
Regardless of how much effort children put into learning, they cannot learn until they developmentally ready to learn.
In an individual’s life early foundations are critical. Early development is more critical than later development. Early foundations are greatly influenced by learning and experience. Attitudes, habits and patterns of behavior established during the early years determine to large extent how successfully individuals will adjust to life as they grow older.
An old Chinese proverb states “As the twig, so the tree”
Milton said “Childhood shows the man, as morning shows the day”
Erikson says what a child learns, will depend on how parents gratify, the child’s need for food, attention and love. Once learned, these attitudes will influence individual’s perception of people and situations throughout life.
Ideas about how children grow and change existed for centuries. As these speculations combined with research, they inspired the construction of theories of development.
Theories help us understand development and we are in a much better position to know how to improve the welfare and TREATMENT of children.
In the following Editions of Panorama we can go through each stages of development in detail. What are the expected developments in each stage? What are the deviations? What all therapies need to be done? What treatment measures can be done? We can go through the domains of development like Motor, Language, Social, Cognitive etc.
· PAUL S. KAPLAN ; A Child’s Odyssey, Second Edition, West Publishing Company New York, Los Angles, San Francisco , St. Paul.
· LAURA E. BERK ; Child Development, Seventh Edition, Pearson Education Inc and Dorling Kindersley Publishing Inc New Delhi
· LAURA E. BERK; Infants, Children and Adolescents Allyn and Bacon Boston U.S.A
· G.C. DAVENPORT; An Introduction to Child Development , Second Edition, Collins Educational of Harper Collins Publishers, London.
· ELIZABETH B. HURLOCK; Child Growth And Development, Fifth Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, Inc, New York.
· HELEN BEE; The Developing Child, Second Edition, Harper & Raw, Publishers, Inc New York.
· A SANTHOSH KUMAR; Manual of Pediatric Practice Second Edition , Paras Medical, Publisher, Hyderabad
· Dr. M K C NAIR , Dr. RANJAN KUMAR PEJAVER ; Child Development 2000 and Beyond , Prism Books Pvt Ltd Banglore India